The thermodynamic cycles, in general, may be classified into the following two types;

1. Reversible Cycle or ideal cycle

2. Irreversible or natural or real cycle

1. Reversible Cycle or ideal cycle

2. Irreversible or natural or real cycle

The thermodynamic cycles, in general, may be classified into the following two types;

1. Reversible Cycle or ideal cycle

2. Irreversible or natural or real cycle

1. Reversible Cycle or ideal cycle

2. Irreversible or natural or real cycle

The analysis of all thermodynamics cycles is based on the following assumptions:

1. The gas in the engine cylinder is a perfect gas, i.e. it obeys the gas laws and constant specific heats.

2. The physical constants of the gas in the engine cylinder are same as those of air at moderate temperature.

3. All the compression and expansion processes are adiabatic and they take place without any internal friction.

4. Heat is supplied by bringing a hot body in contact with the cylinder at appropriate points during the process. Similarly heat is rejected by bringing a cold body in contact with the cylinder at these points.

5. The cycle is considered to be a closed one and the same air is used again and again to repeat the cycle.

6. No chemical reaction, whatsoever, takes place in the engine cylinder.

1. The gas in the engine cylinder is a perfect gas, i.e. it obeys the gas laws and constant specific heats.

2. The physical constants of the gas in the engine cylinder are same as those of air at moderate temperature.

3. All the compression and expansion processes are adiabatic and they take place without any internal friction.

4. Heat is supplied by bringing a hot body in contact with the cylinder at appropriate points during the process. Similarly heat is rejected by bringing a cold body in contact with the cylinder at these points.

5. The cycle is considered to be a closed one and the same air is used again and again to repeat the cycle.

6. No chemical reaction, whatsoever, takes place in the engine cylinder.

This Law states, "The total energy of a molecule is shared equally by the various degrees of freedom possessed by it."

In case of mono atomic molecules like argon and helium, the energy possessed by them is only that of transnational type, the rotational energy being negligible. We have already discussed in Art.

Energy of translation per molecule = 3/2*kT

Energy per molecule per degree freedom = 1/3*3/2kT

In case of mono atomic molecules like argon and helium, the energy possessed by them is only that of transnational type, the rotational energy being negligible. We have already discussed in Art.

Energy of translation per molecule = 3/2*kT

Energy per molecule per degree freedom = 1/3*3/2kT

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Law of Equipartition of Energy

In order to describe completely the motion of a particle in one plane, only two quantities must be known, say its two rectangular components. Similarly, for a particle moving in space, three independent quantities must be known to describe its motion. A molecule in a rigid body can have three motions of vibration along any of three co-ordinates axis in addition to its three motions of translation. It is thus obvious that in order to completely describe the state of motion of a particle, six independent quantities must be known.

In general, the total number of independent quantities, which must be known for describing completely the state of motion of a body, are called its degrees of freedom.

In general, the total number of independent quantities, which must be known for describing completely the state of motion of a body, are called its degrees of freedom.

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Degrees of Freedom

The kinetic theory of gases is based on the following assumptions:

1. The volume of a gas consists of a large number of minutes particles called molecules. it has been experimentally found that there are about 26.8*10(power 18) molecules in 1ml of a gas at N.T.P.

2. The molecules are mere mass points. In other words, the size of a molecules is assumed to be negligible, as compared to the distance between the molecules.

3. The gas molecules are perfectly elastic sphere and exert negligible force of attraction or repulsion on one another, or on the walls of the containing vessel. Hence in a direct impact, the molecules rebound with the same velocity after each collision.

4. The molecules are continuously colliding against each other, and with the walls of the containing vessel.Between two collisions, a molecule moves in a straight line. This distance is called the free path of the molecule.

5. The time during which a collision takes place is negligible as compared to the time required to transverse the free path, i.e collisions are instantaneous.

1. The volume of a gas consists of a large number of minutes particles called molecules. it has been experimentally found that there are about 26.8*10(power 18) molecules in 1ml of a gas at N.T.P.

2. The molecules are mere mass points. In other words, the size of a molecules is assumed to be negligible, as compared to the distance between the molecules.

3. The gas molecules are perfectly elastic sphere and exert negligible force of attraction or repulsion on one another, or on the walls of the containing vessel. Hence in a direct impact, the molecules rebound with the same velocity after each collision.

4. The molecules are continuously colliding against each other, and with the walls of the containing vessel.Between two collisions, a molecule moves in a straight line. This distance is called the free path of the molecule.

5. The time during which a collision takes place is negligible as compared to the time required to transverse the free path, i.e collisions are instantaneous.

The Clausius inequality state that whenever a closed system undergoes a cyclic process, the cyclic integral of &Q/T is less than zero for an irreversible cyclic process and equal to zero for a reversible cyclic process. Mathematically,

infinity&Q/T < 0, for an irreversible cyclic process

infinity &Q/T = 0, for a reversible cyclic process

and

combining the equations is written as

infinity -< 0

The Clausius inequality not only gives mathematically expression to the second law of thermodynamics, but it also gives the quantitative measure of irreversibly of the system. For example, the equation for an irreversible cyclic process may be written as,

infinity &Q/T + 1 = 0

Where 1 represents the amount by which the given cyclic process irreversible. When 1 is equal to zero, then the given cyclic process will be reversible. Moreover, a cyclic process in which infinity dQ/T is more then zero, is impossible because it violates the second law of thermodynamics.

infinity&Q/T < 0, for an irreversible cyclic process

infinity &Q/T = 0, for a reversible cyclic process

and

combining the equations is written as

infinity -< 0

The Clausius inequality not only gives mathematically expression to the second law of thermodynamics, but it also gives the quantitative measure of irreversibly of the system. For example, the equation for an irreversible cyclic process may be written as,

infinity &Q/T + 1 = 0

Where 1 represents the amount by which the given cyclic process irreversible. When 1 is equal to zero, then the given cyclic process will be reversible. Moreover, a cyclic process in which infinity dQ/T is more then zero, is impossible because it violates the second law of thermodynamics.

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thermal Clausius Inequality

The unit of entropy depends upon the unit of heat employed and the absolute temperature. We know that

Change in entropy (dS) = &Q/T

Therefore, if the heat supplied or rejected is in kJ and the temperature is in K, then the unit of entropy is kJ/K. The entropy may be expressed in so many units entropy without assigning any dimensional units. Since the entropy is expressed per unit mass of the working substance, it would be more correct to speak specific entropy. The absolute values of entropy cannot be determined, but only the change in entropy may be obtained by using equation.

Theoretically, the entropy of a substance is zero at absolute zero temperature. Hence, in entropy calculation, some convenient datum should be selected from which measurement may be made.

It may be noted that water 0degree C is assumed to have zero entropy, and changes in its entropy are reckoned from this temperature.

Change in entropy (dS) = &Q/T

Therefore, if the heat supplied or rejected is in kJ and the temperature is in K, then the unit of entropy is kJ/K. The entropy may be expressed in so many units entropy without assigning any dimensional units. Since the entropy is expressed per unit mass of the working substance, it would be more correct to speak specific entropy. The absolute values of entropy cannot be determined, but only the change in entropy may be obtained by using equation.

Theoretically, the entropy of a substance is zero at absolute zero temperature. Hence, in entropy calculation, some convenient datum should be selected from which measurement may be made.

It may be noted that water 0degree C is assumed to have zero entropy, and changes in its entropy are reckoned from this temperature.

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Units of Entropy thermal

The heat energy of a system is considered to have the following two parts:

1.Available heat energy

2.Unavailable heat energy

The available heat energy is that part of the heat energy which can be converted into mechanical work by ideal process which reduce the system in a state of equilibrium.

The unavailable heat energy is that part of heat energy which can not be converted into mechanical work even by ideal process which reduce the system in a state of equilibrium.The common ideas used for unavailable heat energy, according to second Law of Thermodynamics, is the heat rejected by the system to the surrounding.

From above, we have total energy or heat energy or heat supplied to the system,

&Q = Available heat energy + Unavailable heat energy

= A.H.E + U.H.E = Workdone + heat rejected

The maximum possible efficiency obtainable by any engine working on a reversible Carnot Cycle is given by

n = T1-T2/T1

where

T1 = Highest absolute temperature, and

T2 = Lowest absolute temperature.

in general, efficiency is given by

n = Maximum work obtained/Heat supplied or absorbed = &W/&Q

For one degree temperature drop, the above expression may be written as

&W = $Q/T = dS = Change in entropy

From This expression, it can be easily understand that

1. The change in entropy represents the maximum amount of work obtainable per degree drop in temperature.

2. The change in entropy may be regarded as a measure of the rate the availability of heat for transformation into work.

3. The increase in entropy is obtained from a given quantity of heat at a low temperature.

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Importance of Entropy thermal

Consider the heating of a working substance by a reversible process as shown whose base represents the entropy and the vertical ordinate represents the absolute temperature.

Now Consider any point A on the curve 1-2. At this point, let a small quantity of heat (&Q) be supplied to the working substance, which will increase the entropy by dS. Let the absolute temperature at this instant be T. Then according to the definition of entropy,

&Q = TdS

From Fig we see that the terms TdS represents the area under the curve during this change of entropy.

From Equations we get

ds = &Q/T

The total change in entropy may be obtained by integration the above expression from state 1 to state 2.

then we found

TdS = dU + pdv

It is truly important to understand that there is not only one clamp on flow meter, but rather you are able to determine the type of flow meter that you need and/or want, and then you usually have the option of choosing a clamp on flow meter for that particular type of flow meter that you have chosen.

Understanding Thermal Energy

In order to understand what you would need a clamp on flow meter for to begin with, you first need to understand a bit about thermal energy; basically thermal energy is mainly distributed by fluid media to the points of consumption, and the energy manager involved in this situation would not only be interested in the total energy required, but also in that of the consumption of individual heat consumers and in the flow of the energy in the plant in general.

The reason that thermal energy relates to something such as a clamp on flow meter is due to the fact that the clamp on flow meter is a device which is typically used in this type of situation, in order for the members involved to be able to read the flow and velocity of the thermal energy that is involved in that particular situation.

The flow measurement involved in this type of situation would be based on that of the ultrasonic transit time technique, and this method would thus utilize the transmission of sound waves in the fluid itself, and sound pulses would then be sent alternatively downstream and upstream through the liquid the entire way.

Furthermore, you should also know that the transducers for coupling these sound signals through the pipe clamp from the outside onto the pipe, all the while ensuring that there is no actual disturbance to the flow itself, may be a rather expensive installation, however are incredibly important at the same time, and so they would be well worth the purchase in the end.

You can generally find these at your local hardware store, and you can find some at better prices than others, and so you will thus want to take a bit of time so that you can find the best quality and worth for your money that you possibly can; it truly will be worth it in the end, and so use the resources that are available to you as well in order to help you in this situation.

Among the different process involved in the wave soldering process thermal profiling is one of the most important processes which can affect the wave soldering process to a great extent. Thermal profiling is one of the most important processes which should be performed very carefully so as to make the production of the printed circuit board good in quality. Thermal profiling is done during the travel of the printed circuit board through the whole process.

Thermal profiling is the process of measuring the time against the temperature during the whole travel of the product through out the process from the beginning to the end. The collection of the data like the peak temperature, time above the liquids, immersing of the product into the wave and more also comes under the process of thermal profiling during the wave soldering process. These whole processes comprises of the thermal profiling process for the wave soldering. The data collected during the thermal profiling process helps in making the process of wave soldering even more efficient and to bring a valuable improvement in the quality and the consistency in the quality of the product. So we can say that the process of thermal profiling is an important part of the process of wave soldering and it contributes in a successful completion of the wave solder process.

The devices used for the thermal profiling is known as the “Thermal Profiler” or some people even call them as “Data Loggers” for the proves of the wave soldering. Actually the thermal profilers are basically the temperature recorders which are used for keeping the record of the temperatures during the whole process and they have the capability for traveling through the complete process of wave soldering along with the product so as to get the actual reading for the temperature that the product observes.

There are various thermal profilers or can say temperature recorders available in the market but there are some specific companies which manufactures the thermal profilers especially for the wave soldering process. These thermal profilers are used in the reflow profiling process of the wave soldering. These profilers also help in optimizing the wave soldering process. They provide pretty accurate data for the whole process which makes the optimization for the process even more affective.

General thermal profilers are equipped with the thermocouple based sensor which is attached to the surface of the PCB and then the PCB is made to travel through the thermal profiler which helps in monitoring the complete data for the wave solder process. The most common thermal profiler is the one which downloads the information while it is passing through the whole process.

Now these thermal profilers have become a must for the people involved in the business of the PCB manufacturing. It helps in optimizing the process of the wave soldering to make it even more efficient.

At thermodynamic equilibrium, a system's properties are, by definition, unchanging in time. Systems in equilibrium are much simpler and easier to understand than systems which are not in equilibrium. Often, when analyzing a thermodynamic process, it can be assumed that each intermediate state in the process is at equilibrium. This will also considerably simplify the analysis.

In isolated systems it is consistently observed that as time goes on internal rearrangements diminish and stable conditions are approached. Pressures and temperatures tend to equalize, and matter arranges itself into one or a few relatively homogeneous phases. A system in which all processes of change have gone practically to completion is considered to be in a state of thermodynamic equilibrium. The thermodynamic properties of a system in equilibrium are unchanging in time. Equilibrium system states are much easier to describe in a deterministic manner than non-equilibrium states.

In thermodynamic processes, large departures from equilibrium during intermediate steps are associated with increases in entropy and increases in the production of heat rather than useful work. It can be shown that for a process to be reversible, each step in the process must be reversible. For a step in a process to be reversible, the system must be in equilibrium throughout the step. That ideal cannot be accomplished in practice because no step can be taken without perturbing the system from equilibrium, but the ideal can be approached by making changes slowly.

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Systems in equilibrium

An isolated system is more restrictive than a closed system as it does not interact with its surroundings in any way. Mass and energy remains constant within the system, and no energy or mass transfer takes place across the boundary. As time passes in an isolated system, internal differences in the system tend to even out and pressures and temperatures tend to equalize, as do density differences. A system in which all equalizing processes have gone practically to completion is considered to be in a state of thermodynamic equilibrium.

Truly isolated physical systems do not exist in reality (except perhaps for the universe as a whole), because, for example, there is always gravity between a system with mass and masses elsewhere. However, real systems may behave nearly as an isolated system for finite (possibly very long) times. The concept of an isolated system can serve as a useful model approximating many real-world situations. It is an acceptable idealization used in constructing mathematical models of certain natural phenomena.

In the attempt to justify the postulate of entropy increase in the second law of thermodynamics, Boltzmann’s H-theorem used equations which assumed a system (for example, a gas) was isolated. That is all the mechanical degrees of freedom could be specified, treating the walls simply as mirror boundary conditions. This inevitably led to Loschmidt's paradox. However, if the stochastic behavior of the molecules in actual walls is considered, along with the randomizing effect of the ambient, background thermal radiation, Boltzmann’s assumption of molecular chaos can be justified.

The second law of thermodynamics is only true for isolated systems. It states that the entropy of an isolated system not in equilibrium will tend to increase over time, approaching maximum value at equilibrium. Overall, in an isolated system, the available energy can never increase, and it complement, entropy, can never decrease. A closed system's entropy can decrease.

It is important to note that isolated systems are not equivalent to closed systems. Closed systems cannot exchange matter with the surroundings, but can exchange energy. Isolated systems can exchange neither matter nor energy with their surroundings, and as such are only theoretical and do not exist in reality (except, possibly, the entire universe).

It is worth noting that 'closed system' is often used in thermodynamics discussions when 'isolated system' would be correct - i.e. there is an assumption that energy does not enter or leave the system.

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Isolated system

The dominating feature of an industrial society is its ability to utilize sources of energy other than the muscles of men or animals. Most energy supplies are in the form of fuels such as coal or oil, where the energy is stored as internal energy. The process of combustion releases the internal erergy and converts it to heat. In this form the energy may be utilized for heating, cooking, ... etc. But to operate a machine, or to propel a vehicle or a projectile, the heat must be converted to mechanical energy, and one of the problems of mechanical engineer is to carry out this conversion with the maximum possible efficiency.

The energy transformations in a heat engine are conveniently represented schematically by the flow diagram in Figure 07. The engine itself is represented by the circle. The heat Q2 supplied to the engine is proportional to the cross section of the incoming "pipeline" at the top of the diagram. The cross section of the outgoing pipeline at the bottom is proportional to that portion of the heat, Q1, which is rejected as heat in the exhaust. The branch line to the right represents that portion of the heat supplied, which the engine converts to mechanical work. The thermal efficiency Eff(%) is expressed by the formula:

Eff(%) = W / Q2 = (Q2 - Q1) / Q2 ---------- (6)

The most efficient heat engine cycle is the Carnot cycle, consisting of two isothermal processes and two adiabatic processes (see Figure 08). The Carnot cycle can be thought of as the most efficient heat engine cycle allowed by physical laws. When the second law of thermodynamics states that not all the supplied heat in a heat engine can be used to do work, the Carnot efficiency sets the limiting value on the fraction of the heat which can be so used. In order to approach the Carnot efficiency, the processes involved in the heat engine cycle

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Work and Engines

A key concept in thermodynamics is the state of a system. A state consists of all the information needed to completely describe a system at an instant of time. When a system is at equilibrium under a given set of conditions, it is said to be in a definite state. For a given thermodynamic state, many of the system's properties (such as T, p, and ) have a specific value corresponding to that state. The values of these properties are a function of the state of the system. The number of properties that must be specified to describe the state of a given system (the number of degree of freedom) is given by Gibbs phase rule:

f = c - p + 2 ---------- (5a)

where f is the number of degrees of freedom, c is the number of components in the system, and p is the number of phases in the system. Components denote the different kind of species in the system. Phase means a system with uniform chemical composition and physical properties.

For example, the phase rule indicates that a single component system (c = 1) with only one phase (p = 1), such as liquid water, has 2 degrees of freedom (f = 1 - 1 + 2 = 2). For this case the degrees of freedom correspond to temperature and pressure, indicating that the system can exist in equilibrium for any arbitrary combination of temperature and pressure. However, if we allow the formation of a gas phase (then p = 2), there is only 1 degree of freedom. This means that at a given temperature, water in the gas phase will evaporate or condense until the corresponding equilibrium water vapor pressure is reached. It is no longer possible to arbitrarily fix both the temperature and the pressure, since the system will tend to move toward the equilibrium vapor pressure. For a single component with three phases (p = 3 -- gas, liquid, and solid) there are no degrees of freedom. Such a system is only possible at the temperature and pressure corresponding to the Triple point.

One of the main goals of Thermodynamics is to understand these relationships between the various state properties of a system. Equations of state are examples of some of these relationships. The ideal gas law:

pV = nRT ----------

f = c - p + 2 ---------- (5a)

where f is the number of degrees of freedom, c is the number of components in the system, and p is the number of phases in the system. Components denote the different kind of species in the system. Phase means a system with uniform chemical composition and physical properties.

For example, the phase rule indicates that a single component system (c = 1) with only one phase (p = 1), such as liquid water, has 2 degrees of freedom (f = 1 - 1 + 2 = 2). For this case the degrees of freedom correspond to temperature and pressure, indicating that the system can exist in equilibrium for any arbitrary combination of temperature and pressure. However, if we allow the formation of a gas phase (then p = 2), there is only 1 degree of freedom. This means that at a given temperature, water in the gas phase will evaporate or condense until the corresponding equilibrium water vapor pressure is reached. It is no longer possible to arbitrarily fix both the temperature and the pressure, since the system will tend to move toward the equilibrium vapor pressure. For a single component with three phases (p = 3 -- gas, liquid, and solid) there are no degrees of freedom. Such a system is only possible at the temperature and pressure corresponding to the Triple point.

One of the main goals of Thermodynamics is to understand these relationships between the various state properties of a system. Equations of state are examples of some of these relationships. The ideal gas law:

pV = nRT ----------

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States

A general definition of entropy was formulated by Boltzmann in 1872. It is expressed in terms of "coarse-graining volume" in the phase space, which amalgamates the positions and momenta of all particles in a system into one point (Figure 01c). The relentless increase toward higher entropy until reaching its maximum (i.e., in a state of thermal equilibrium) is related to the fact that the evolution of the phase point is more favorable toward the larger "coarse-graining volume"

- Configuration Space - It is a space consists of all the 3-dimensional spatial coordinates of N particles (N = 4 in Figure 01c, represented by the blue arrows) with all the 3N coordinate axes orthogonal (perpendicular) to each others. The horizontal axis for the phase space in Figure 01c is a much simplified visual aid for the 3N configuration space. At 300
^{o}K and standard atmospheric pressure of 101 kpa, the number of gas molecules N in a cube of 10 cm would be about 3x10^{22}. - Momentum Space - In addition to the position of the particle, each one needs at least three more numbers to specify its state, namely the three components of its momentum (red arrow in Figure 01c). Similar to the configuration space, the momentum space is made up by 3N orthogonal axes representing the momenta of N particles. At 300
^{o}K and standard atmospheric pressure of 101 kpa and assuming the gas molecules to be hydrogen atoms with mass m = 1.67x10^{-24}gm, the root-mean-square velocity of the particles v_{rms}= (3kT/m)^{1/2}~ 3x10^{4}cm/sec., the corresponding momentum p = mv_{rms}= (2mE)^{1/2}~ 4.5x10^{-20}erg-sec/cm (or E ~ 10^{-16}erg ~ 6x10^{-5}ev). The size of the momentum space for each particle can be estimated from a range below and above the rms value such that about 0.1% probabilities toward the tail ends are excluded. - Phase Space - It is the orthogonal combination of the configuration and momentum spaces having altogether 6N dimensions as shown in Figure 01c. The dimensions are often referred to as the degrees of freedom. The phase space volume W is:

W = {[^{3N/2}(2mE)^{3N/2}V^{N}]/[(N!(3N/2)]}(E/E), where

p = (2mE)^{1/2}(E/2E) is the range of momentum,

2^{3N/2}(2mE)^{(3N-1)/2}comes from integrating up to the energy E = p^{2}/2m,

V is the spatial volume containing the particles,

N! and (3N/2) are for removing the degeneracy related to the permutation symmetry of identical particles. (3N/2) is the Gamma function identical to (3N/2)! if the argument is an integer. - Partition Function - It is the the number of microscopic states within the energy shell E of the phase space. The Planck's constant h = 6.625x10
^{-27}erg-sec from the uncertainty relation px ~ h in quantum theory is conveniently taken as the basic unit (minimum size) of the microscopic states. Thus the partition function Z is just:

Z = W/h^{3N}= {[(^{1/2}(2mE)^{1/2}V^{1/3})/h]^{3N}/[N!(3N/2)]}(E/E) ~ {(10^{8})^{3N}/[N!(3N/2)]}(E/E)

where the numerical value 10^{8}is computed from the previous assumptions for the size of the container and p. It shows that the number of microscopic states available is enormous in the order of 10^{24}even for a system of just one particle (N = 1).

- Entropy - Boltzmann's definition of entropy S is:

S = k ln(Z)

where k = 1.38x10^{-16}erg/^{o}K is the Boltzmann constant. It is immediately clear that entropy would increase by adding # of particles N, energy E, or volume V as shown in figure 01b (the internal degrees of freedom are not considered here). Since Z depends on the parameters in power of 3N, it varies by huge amount with a relatively small change in these parameters. - Coarse-graining Region - Each of this sub-volume w in the phase space is characterized by some macroscopic properties such as temperature, pressure, density, color, chemical composition etc. with a certain number of microscopic states. The w sub-volume has number of neighbors going up drastically with increasing dimension - typically 6 in the 2 dimensional case, 14 in 3 dimensions, ... As mentioned above, the various w sub-volumes tend to differ in size by absolutely enormous factors.
- Second Law of Thermodynamics - The evolutionary path of a phase point in the phase space is indicated by a curve as shown in Figure 01d. Although time and hence rate of change is absent in the picture, the direction of evolution is represented by an arrow. The path is determined by physical law such as the N-body Newtonian equation of motion, it has a higher probability of moving into another w sub-volume with larger size and hence higher entropy - the basic conception of the Second Law of Thermodynamics. The appearance of randomness is the manifestation of the fact that there are so many different microscopic states available for the same macroscopic state. The system reaches thermal equilibrium when the phase point enters the largest sub-volume and keeps wandering around inside. Note that there is a certain probability of going into a smaller w, but the probability goes down rapidly with decreasing sub-volume size.

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Entropy

Zeroth law - It is the definition of thermodynamic equilibrium. When two systems are put in contact with each other, energy and/or matter will be exchanged between them unless they are in thermodynamic equilibrium. In other word, two systems are in thermodynamic equilibrium with each other if they stay the same after being put in contact.

The original zeroth law is stated as If A and B are in thermodynamic equilibrium, and B and C are in thermodynamic equilibrium, then A and C are also in thermodynamic equilibrium.

Thermodynamic equilibrium includes thermal equilibrium (associated to heat exchange and parameterized by temperature), mechanical equilibrium (associated to work exchange and parameterized generalized forces such as pressure), and chemical equilibrium (associated to matter exchange and parameterized by chemical potential).

1st Law - This is the law of energy conservation. It is stated alternatively in many forms as follows:

The work exchanged in an adiabatic process depends only on the initial and the final state and not on the details of the process.

or

The heat flowing into a system equals the increase in internal energy of the system minus the work done by the system.

or

Energy cannot be created, or destroyed, only modified in form.

The second statement can be expressed mathematically in the form of Eq.(1) with negative W representing work done by the system. The adiabatic process in the first statement refers to a system with no heat transfer, i.e., Q = 0.

2nd Law - It can be stated in many ways, the most popular of which is:

It is impossible to obtain a process such that the unique effect is the subtraction of a positive heat from a reservoir and the production of a positive work.

or

A system operating in a cycle cannot produce a positive heat flow from a colder body to a hotter body.

The first statement is to exclude the un-realistic situations such as to drive a steamship across the ocean by extracting heat from the water, or to run a power plant by extracting heat from the surrounding air. The second statement expresses the impossibility of running refrigeration without work. Another form of the 2nd law states:

The entropy of an isolated system tends to remain constant or to increase. It is in this form that the arrow of time is defined. Figure 01b shows the various ways entropy can be added to a system.

3rd Law: This law explains why it is so hard to cool something to absolute zero:

All processes cease as temperature approaches zero.

This statement is expressed mathematically by Eq.(4), which shows that as the temperature T approaches zero the amount of heat extracted from the system also diminishes to zero. Thus, even using laser cooling would not be able to attain a temperature of absolute zero.

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The Four Laws of Thermodynamics

Thermodynamics is the branch of science that deals with the conversions of various forms of energy and the effect on the state of a system. It was developed in the 19^{th} century, when it was of great practical importance in the era of steam engines. Since the microscopic structure of matter is not known at that time, it can only prescribe a macroscopic view. It remains valid and useful in the 21^{th} century, but now we understand such macroscopic description is just the averaged behaviour of a large collection of microscopic constituents.

- It is essential to define the terminology before learning more about the subject:
- Heat - Heat (
**Q**) is a form of energy transfer associated with random motion of the microscopic particles. - Work - Work (
**W**) is the organized form of energy transfer associated with the motion of microscopic particles as a whole (in a certain direction), e.g., the expanding gas that propels a piston. - Internal Energy - The internal energy (
**U**) of a system is the total energy due to the motion of molecules, plus the rotation, and vibration of atoms within molecules. Heat and work are two methods of adding energy to or subtracting energy from a system. They represent energy in transit and are the terms used when energy is moving. Once the transfer of energy is over, the system is said to have undergone a change in internal energy d**U**. Thus, in terms of the amount of heat d**Q**and work d**W**:

d**U**= d**Q**+ d**W**---------- (1)

where d**Q**and d**W**are positive for energy transfer from the surroundings to the system, and negative for energy transfer from the system to the surroundings. If the process of energy transfer is broken down into finer details, e.g., change in disorder (dS), volume expansion/contraction (dV), and adding a new species of particles (dN), then the change in internal energy can be expressed as:

d**U**= T dS - p dV + dN ---------- (2)

where is the chemical potential.

- Free Energy - The amount of available energy that is capable of performing work.
- Temperature - Temperature (T) is related to the amount of internal energy in a system. As more heat or work is added the temperature rises, similarly a decrease in temperature corresponds to a loss of heat or work performed from the system. Temperature is an intrinsic property of a system, meaning that it does not depend on the system size or the amount of material in the system. Other intrinsic properties include pressure and density. The internal energy (
**U**) is related to the temperature (T) by the formula:

**U**= (3nR/2) T ---------- (3)

where R = 8.314x107 erg/K^{o}-mole is called the gas constant. - Pressure - Pressure (p) is the force normal to the surface of area upon which it exerts. Microscopically, it is the transfer of momenta from the particles that produces the force on the surface.
- Volume - Volume (V) is referred to the three dimensional space occupied by the system.
- Particle Number - Particle number (N) is the number of a particular constituents in a system.
- Avogadro's Number - Avogadro's number (N
_{0}) is 6.023 x 10^{23}. One mole is defined as the unit that contains that many number of particles such as atoms, molecules, or ions, e.g., it is the number of carbon-12 atoms in 12 gram of the substance, or the number of protons in 1 gram of the same substance, etc. - Number of Moles - Number of moles (n) is the number of particles in the unit of a mole, i.e., n = N / N
_{0}. - Density - Density () is defined as mass per unit volume.
- Entropy - Entropy (S) is a measure of disorder in the system. Mathematically, the change of entropy dS is related to the amount of heat transfer d
**Q**by the formula:

dS = d**Q**/ T or d**Q**= T dS ---------- (4)

- Chemical Potential - The chemical potential () of a thermodynamic system is the change in the energy of the system when a different kind of constituent particle is introduced, with the entropy and volume held fixed.

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Terminology

In a closed system, no mass may be transferred in or out of the system boundaries. The system will always contain the same amount of matter, but heat and work can be exchanged across the boundary of the system. Whether a system can exchange heat, work, or both is dependent on the property of its boundary.

- Adiabatic boundary – not allowing any heat exchange
- Rigid boundary – not allowing exchange of work

One example is fluid being compressed by a piston in a cylinder. Another example of a closed system is a bomb calorimeter, a type of constant-volume calorimeter used in measuring the heat of combustion of a particular reaction. Electrical energy travels across the boundary to produce a spark between the electrodes and initiates combustion. Heat transfer occurs across the boundary after combustion but no mass transfer takes place either way.

Beginning with the first law of thermodynamics for an open system, this is expressed as:

where U is internal energy, Q is heat transfer, W is work, and since no mass is transferred in or out of the system, both expressions involving mass flow, , zeroes, and the first law of thermodynamics for a closed system is derived. The first law of thermodynamics for a closed system states that the amount of internal energy within the system equals the difference between the amount of heat added to or extracted from the system and the work done by or to the system. The first law for closed systems is stated by:

- d
*U*= Î´*Q*− Î´*W*

where U is the average internal energy within the system, Q is the heat added to or extracted from the system and W is the work done by or to the system.

Substituting the amount of work needed to accomplish a reversible process, which is stated by:

- Î´
*W*=*P*d*V*

where P is the measured pressure and V is the volume, and the heat required to accomplish a reversible process stated by the second law of thermodynamics, the universal principle of entropy, stated by:

- Î´
*Q*=*T*d*S*

where T is the absolute temperature and S is the entropy of the system, derives the fundamental thermodynamic relationship used to compute changes in internal energy, which is expressed as:

- Î´
*U*=*T*d*S*−*P*d*V*

For a simple system, with only one type of particle (atom or molecule), a closed system amounts to a constant number of particles. However, for systems which are undergoing a chemical reaction, there may be all sorts of molecules being generated and destroyed by the reaction process. In this case, the fact that the system is closed is expressed by stating that the total number of each elemental atom is conserved, no matter what kind of molecule it may be a part of. Mathematically:

where *N*_{j} is the number of j-type molecules, *a*_{ij} is the number of atoms of element *i* in molecule *j* and *b*_{i}^{0} is the total number of atoms of element *i* in the system, which remains constant, since the system is closed. There will be one such equation for each different element in the system.

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Closed system

In open systems, matter may flow in and out of the system boundaries. The first law of thermodynamics for open systems states: *the increase in the internal energy of a system is equal to the amount of energy added to the system by matter flowing in and by heating, minus the amount lost by matter flowing out and in the form of work done by the system.* The first law for open systems is given by:

where *U*_{in} is the average internal energy entering the system and *U*_{out} is the average internal energy leaving the system

The region of space enclosed by open system boundaries is usually called a control volume, and it may or may not correspond to physical walls. If we choose the shape of the control volume such that all flow in or out occurs perpendicular to its surface, then the flow of matter into the system performs work as if it were a piston of fluid pushing mass into the system, and the system performs work on the flow of matter out as if it were driving a piston of fluid. There are then two types of work performed: *flow work*described above which is performed on the fluid (this is also often called *PV work*) and *shaft work* which may be performed on some mechanical device. These two types of work are expressed in the equation:

Substitution into the equation above for the control volume *cv* yields:

The definition of enthalpy, *H*, permits us to use this thermodynamic potential to account for both internal energy and PV work in fluids for open systems:

During steady-state operation of a device (*see turbine, pump, and engine*), any system property within the control volume is independent of time. Therefore, the internal energy of the system enclosed by the control volume remains constant, which implies that d*U*_{cv} in the expression above may be set equal to zero. This yields a useful expression for the power generation or requirement for these devices in the absence of chemical reactions:

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Open system

A thermodynamic system is a precisely defined macroscopic region of the universe, often called aphysical system, that is studied using the principles of thermodynamics.

All space in the universe outside the thermodynamic system is known as the *surroundings*, the*environment*, or a *reservoir*. A system is separated from its surroundings by a *boundary* which may be notional or real, but which by convention delimits a finite volume. Exchanges of work, heat, or matter between the system and the surroundings may take place across this boundary. Thermodynamic systems are often classified by specifying the nature of the exchanges that are allowed to occur across its boundary.

A thermodynamic system is characterized and defined by a set of thermodynamic parameters associated with the system. The parameters are experimentally measurable macroscopic properties, such as volume, pressure, temperature, electric field, and others.

The set of thermodynamic parameters necessary to uniquely define a system is called the thermodynamic state of a system. The state of a system is expressed as a functional relationship, the equation of state, between its parameters. A system is in thermodynamic equilibrium when the state of the system does not change with time.

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Thermodynamic System

The steady flow equation for unit mass flow, in the differential form, is

&q - &w = dh + d(ke) + d(pe)

&q - &w = dh + d(ke) + d(pe)

According to first law of thermodynamics for a closed system, we know that

&q = du +pdv

or

dh = &q +v dp

substituting this value of dh in equation

&q - &w = (&q + v dp) + d(ke) + d(pe)

- &w = v dp + d(ke) + d(pe)

Most of you may believe that lubrication is important to almost every mechanical part. Thus, the transmission fluid also deserves people's attention because it can provide much-needed lubrication to the complex set of gears and other moving parts in the transmission of a vehicle. Both manual and automatic transmissions need the transmission fluid to keep the proper performance.

There are two types of transmission fluid which can be widely used in the vehicles. Those are traditional transmission fluid and synthetic fluid. Although the latter type costs more than the former one, no one can give an exact answer whether the former type is better or not because they both have their own characteristics and can be applied to meet different requirements. For example, synthetic fluid should be used if you drive a high-performance vehicle under demanding conditions on a frequent basis. But in order to keep your car in a good condition, you must serve the vehicle and replace the fluid regularly whatever type of you use.

Now let us talk something about them specifically. The synthetic fluid has become increasingly popular because it doesn't lose its viscosity or coating ability. Moreover, it is also able to transfer heat more evenly for longer periods of time.

Generally, it is man-made, produced from refined oils treated with a variety of chemical additives. As is mentioned before, it can retain their viscosity longer than conventional fluids; as a result, you do not have to change them frequently.

Traditionally, transmission fluid has been petroleum-based. In manual transmissions, the biggest problem is fluid contamination either due to oxidation or friction between the moving parts that shear minute metal particles into the fluid.

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Transmission Fluids

Attempting to start Diesel engines in cold or sub zero temperatures is extremely difficult and usually an impossible task, unless appropriate accessories has been added to the engine to assist in such starting.

The hard starting problems of diesel engines in below zero / freezing temperatures are caused by two factors. One is the initial cold air being drawn into the turbocharger and compressed into the engine's cylinder head. The second is the fuel itself, is also cold and this sub zero / freezing temperature fuel is sprayed into the cold engine's combustion chamber, where it mixes with the cold air drawn thru turbocharger.

Additional problems will result from fact that a cold starting diesel engine needs to reach at least two hundred (200) rpm to develop a four hundred (400) psi compression pressure to sufficiently compress the air to fuel mixture, and thus, resulting in combustion.

These two problems will result in the diesel fuel being sprayed into the combustion chamber, and it will condense on the cold surfaces of the cylinder liners or cylinder block. This liquid fuel will seep through the piston rings, and fall into the engine's crankcase, diluting the lubricating oil in the process.

Two simple devices can be used to reduce the possibility that these conditions occur. One is by the use of battery heaters and glow plugs. No one device can be used. Usually a combination of several devices will provide an overall efficient starting process.

The efficiency of a battery drops as its temperature drops. A battery that is fully charged at 26 degrees C (80 degrees F) will have its starting capacity drop to approximately forty six percent (46%) available power at 17.7 degrees C below 0 (0 degrees F). Additionally, at this temperature, the engine will be approximately two and a half (2.5) times harder to start at -17.7 C (0 F) degrees due to thicker oil and resistance to movement of internal moving parts. This gets worst at lower temperatures are experienced.

To solve this, one of two common devices is used to heat the battery. One is a padded silicone covered, acid resistant rubber hot pad heater. This operates off of 110/120V and comes in various wattages. The power range can be 60W to 500W, and this can be used to heat the batteries, engine oil pan, fuel tank, hydraulic tank, and the water tank.

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Diesel Engines

When performing on-site analysis in the processing plant or similar environment, there are various different ways and approaches that must be employed in order to arrive at the desired result. This should not come as much of a surprise since different plants serve a number of different purposes. As such, it is best to look towards the most comprehensive approach to the operation of the processing system as possible. That means a variety of equipment will need to be installed in order to ensure that the pipeline or vessel transporting liquids will operate in a full service manner. Of the many varied items a processing engineer requires, thermal flow meters serve some of the most helpful functions.

For those curious as to what purpose these devices actually perform, here is a brief overview: they are intended for the purpose of measuring the flow of a fluid by way of examining the thermal properties of the fluid. This is done by examining a controlled and measured amount of heat to the fluid. (Hence, this is where the term thermal derives from) A sensor will then log the results which can be reviewed by the Engineer or operative. The results of this review can then be weighed for a variety of different purposes and results.

While some may assume that the development of thermal flow meters is the result of new advancements in engineering and associated industries, the origin of this type of equipment actually dates back to the very early part of the 20th century. Of course, there have been many modern advancements made in the development of this particular device. This has allowed it to achieve a level of accuracy and function that adds a level of confidence to the process that would not have been possible without such technological achievements.

The engineering and processing industries are fields that are always growing and innovating. The equipment used in these areas often follow suit quite rapidly. That is why there is such great success in the development of systems such as thermal flow meters. They are able to take an age-old concept or system and effectively update it in such a way that it delivers a great help to all manner of relevant environments. To say this delivers a great value to this environment would be tremendous understatement and most Processing and engineering personnel are grateful that such advanced systems exist to aid them in their work.

There are two different methods that thermal flow meters employ to deliver on their intended results. The first process is known as a constant temperature differential approach and the other is a constant current system. The former system employs measurements of heat and gas while the latter method measures heat and the heat of a particular flow stream. Is one better than the other? Honestly, the issue is not whether one is better than the other as much as certain systems are more appropriate for some labs than others. In general, both serve their prime purpose well.

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Thermal Flow Meter

Thermal Mass Flow (TMF) technology uses thermodynamic principles to drive actual mass flow. A thermal mass flow sensor can be combined with an integral valve and PID flow controller in one compact, efficient instrument that can accurately control the flow of gases and liquids over a wide range of flow rates.

A pressure sensor can be mounted in place of a flow sensor for applications requiring pressure control. Thermal mass flow products exhibit high repeatability and accuracy, providing an effective way to ensure a reliable and stable process.

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Thermal Mass Flow Technology

Heat Transfer series looks at the research and development in thermal engineering for power systems that are of significant importance to many scientists who work in power-related industries and laboratories. To be competitive in today's market, the editors say, power systems need to reduce operating costs, increase capacity, and deal with many other tough issues. Among the topics the book covers are: relevance of heat transfer and heat exchangers for development of sustainable energy systems; advanced technologies for clean and efficient energy conversion in power systems; virtual engineering and the design of power systems; and innovative gas turbine cooling techniques.

Aluminium fabrication is a challenging task indeed. The special properties of aluminium often pose some serious challenges even to the most experienced welders. For example, aluminum is a very well conductor of heat. At the same time, it has a low melting point. Naturally, it becomes difficult to weld the aluminium sheet without burning at least some portions of it. Also, there are some impurities involved in the aluminium which is important to be got rid of. At the same time, one should preheat the aluminium sheet to ensure that the welding is done properly without any chance of cracks.

Regarding all these actions, the push technique is often considered preferable for the experienced professionals. This is basically the technique pushing the gun away from the welding puddle instead of pulling it towards it. The process ensures better cleaning actions, improved shielding gas coverage and reduced weld contamination. Anyways, it is important that the entire welding is done quickly. Since the thermal conductivity of aluminum is high, you need to use higher voltage and amperage settings. Also, you have to have high weld travel speed to ensure that the work is done during the right temperature.

When it comes to shielding gas for aluminum welding, the argon is the most popular option. This is largely because of its ability to clean and penetrate. However, if someone is welding 5XXX series of aluminum alloys, the use of a mixture of argon and helium is preferred. This will reduce the formation of magnesium oxide in the welding process.

Another tricky task for aluminum welding is to select the welding filler wire. Ideally, you should pick up a wire that has a very similar melting point to the base material. This is crucial, the narrower the gap between the filler and the base material, the easier the process will be. Also, you should prefer a wire with a large diameter.

One of the greatest challenges with the aluminum welding is the crater cracking. In fact, this is the most common factors that cause failure in aluminum welding. The crack occurs largely because of the higher rate of thermal expansion of aluminum. However, the risk is even greater when you are welding the concave craters as their surface tears at the time of contraction. Therefore, the welder must ensure that a convex or mound shape is developed during the welding. This will compensate the amount of contraction at the time of cooling down. Finally, you should always choose the power source tool according to the method of transfer spray arc.

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Aluminum Fabrications

When a container is pressurized then pressure is exerted against the walls of the vessels. Pressure is always normal to the surface regardless of the shape. Pressure vessel is a container that has pressure different from the atmospheric pressure. There are many types of pressure vessel they are; thin walled, thick walled, strong tanks, transportable containers, propane bottles and gas cylinders. Pressure vessel is a container that holds liquid, vapor or gas at different pressure other then atmospheric pressure at the same elevation. Generally, a pressure vessel is considered to be thin-walled if its radius is larger than 5 times its wall thickness. Under this condition, the stress in the wall may be considered uniform. Thin wall pressure vessels are in fairly common use. There are two specific types of pressure vessels they are; cylindrical pressure vessels and spherical pressure vessels. Under this condition, the stress in the wall may be considered uniform. The stress in thin walled vessel varies from a maximum value at the inside surface to a minimum value at the outside surface of the vessel. Storage tanks are a category of thin walled pressure vessel.

A thick walled pressure vessel is the one that its wall is 10 % thicker than inside diameter. Thick walled pressure elements working in high temperatures in power stations, chemical and petro chemical industries are subjected to damage as a result of high temperature, mechanical loading and corrosive environment. These factors cause thermal fatigue, creep-fatigue and other processes leading to degradation. When subject to internal and external pressure stress and strain exist in thick walled pressure vessel. They have high tensile strength and can withstand maximum stress.

Transportable containers are the most common pressure vessel and potentially the most ignored type. These are mass produced and require testing every 10 years for propane and gas. Steel pressure vessels are designed to perform the dual purposes air storage and partial separation of moisture. These are provided with all standards so as to operate safely. Pressure vessels have to be designed to perform efficiently at high pressure. Pressure vessel must be free of any cracks or leakages, thereby ensuring complete safety to the surrounding environment. Cracked and damaged vessel may result in leaks or rupture failure. Rupture failure may cause considerable damage to life and property. The safe design, installation, operation and maintenance of pressure vessel in accordance with appropriate codes and standards are necessary for workers safety and health.

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Types Of Pressure Vessels

Thermodynamics: The branch of science that deals with the study of different forms of energy and the quantitative relationships between them.

System: Quantity of matter or a region of space which is under consideration in the analysis of a problem.

Surroundings: Anything outside the thermodynamic system is called the surroundings. The system is separated from the surroundings by the boundary. The boundary may be either fixed or moving.

Closed system: There is no mass transfer across the system boundary. Energy transfer may be there.

Open system: There may be both matter and energy transfer across the boundary of the system.

Isolated system: There is neither matter nor energy transfer across the boundary of the system.

State of the system and state variable: The state of a system means the conditions of the system. It is described in terms of certain observable properties which are called the state variables, for example, temperature (t), pressure (p), and volume (v).

State function: A physical quantity is a state function in the change in its value during the process depends only upon the initial state and final state of the system and does not depend on the path by which the change has been brought about.

Macroscopic system and its properties: If as system contains a large number of chemical species such as atoms, ions, and molecules, it is called macroscopic system. Extensive properties: These properties depend upon the quantity of matter contained in the system. Examples are; mass, volume, heat capacity, internal energy, enthalpy, entropy, Gibb's free energy. Intensive properties: These properties depend only upon the amount of the substance present in the system, for example, temperature, refractive index, density, surface tension, specific heat, freezing point, and boiling point.

Types of thermodynamic processes: We say that a thermodynamic process has occurred when the system changes from one state (initial) to another state (final).

Isothermal process: When the temperature of a system remains constant during a process, we call it isothermal. Heat may flow in or out of the system during an isothermal process.

Adiabatic process: No heat can flow from the system to the surroundings or vice versa.

Isochoric process: It is a process during which the volume of the system is kept constant.

Isobaric process: It is a process during which the pressure of the system is kept constant.

Reversible processes: A process which is carried out infinitesimally slowly so that all changes occurring in the direct process can be exactly reversed and the system remains almost in a state of equilibrium with the surroundings at every stage of the process.

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Thermodynamics Basic Terms

This is reinforced on many occasions when I encounter an old co-worker, friend or acquaintance who reminds me of how I inspired them, gave them guidance or helped them through a difficult time. These kinds of experiences always motivate me to keep putting good things out into the world.

We never know in advance what good may come from the gestures we put out there. Maybe it will inspire, encourage, educate, motivate or actually change someone’s life. In any event, people will always come away knowing that they matter to you.

In business, as in life, it all comes down to people. People are your customers, co-workers, employees, leaders, managers, investors and vendors. Success in your business depends on the people you encounter. How you treat those people will have a significant impact on your bottom line.

Here are some ways to help people in your business and show them that they matter:

1. Deliver incredible customer service.

2. Give a single parent the afternoon off.

3. Pay someone more than you need to.

4. Send a hand-written note to an employee acknowledging a job well done.

5. Loan a subordinate a book that you’ve found to be helpful.

6. Tell someone struggling “I want to help you succeed,” and mean it.

7. Stop by and talk, without an agenda.

8. Share a resource that you’ve found useful.

9. Create a safe space for openness and honesty.

10. Let people tell you how they feel, and listen without interrupting.

I encourage you to think about the people that you impact, the lives that you touch and the positive changes that you can make. These are the true signs of leadership and in my opinion are more important than the money that you make, the position that you hold or the size of your office.

You can do good while you’re doing well. It may require you to think of new ways to do it, but when you focus on helping others, you’ll succeed in ways beyond measure.

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